Hellenic Journal of Psychology

Volume 03, 2006

ISSN 1790-1391

Legally responsible

Anastasia Efklides

President of the Psychological Society of Northern Greece
School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Tel: ++30-2310-997374. Fax: ++30-2310-997384. E-mail: efklides@psy.auth.gr


Anastasia Efklides, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Associate Editors:
Maria Dikaiou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Angeliki Leondari, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Georgios D. Sideridis,  University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece

Assistant Editors:
Irini Dermitzaki, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Mary H. Kosmidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Robert Mellon, University of Crete, Greece
Plousia Misailidi, University of Ioannina, Greece
Pagona Roussi, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Guest Editor of Issue 1:
Maria Zafiropoulou, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Guest Editor of Issue 2:
Marios Goudas, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Editorial Board

Anastasia Efklides, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Shulamith Kreitler, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Diomedes Markoulis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Robert Neimeyer, University of Memphis, USA
Markku Niemivirta, University of Helsinki, Finland
Jose M. Prieto, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
Wolfgang Schnotz, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany
Yannis Theodorakis, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Maria Tzouriadou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Marja Vauras, University of Turku, Finland
Marcel Veenman, University of Leiden, The Netherlands


ELLINIKA GRAMMATA: Emm. Benaki 59, 106 81 Athens, Greece Τel: ++30-210-3891800 - Fax: ++30-210-3836658
Bookstore: Zood. Pigis 21 & Tzavela 1, 106 81 Athens, Greece

Issue 1

Cognitive behaviour therapy with children: Skills-directed therapy

Tammie Ronen
Tel Aviv University, Israel

Abstract (Summary):

This paper proposes that in the past, the difficulties in applying cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with children derived from the lack of an integral theoretical framework. Such a theoretical framework should integrate several features: developmental considerations, social and emotional development, and the nature of child information processing. Whereas the main components in adult CBT comprise the understanding of links between thoughts, emotions, and behavior and the understanding of one’s ability to create change, the main component in child CBT constitutes skill acquisition. That is, in order to achieve change, children must undergo training and practice in the application of appropriate skills. This paper ties these key components together in a cognitive intervention with children who evidence aggressive behavior.

Keywords: Children, Cognitive behavior therapy, Skills acquisition.

Address: Tammie Ronen, The Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Fax: +972-3-6409182. Email: tamie@post.tau.ac.il

*Published in English.

The involvement of parents in child-focused CBT

Paul Stallard
University of Bath/Avon and Wiltshire Mental Healt

Abstract (Summary):

Although there is increasing interest in the use of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) with children, the role of parents in child-focused CBT has received comparatively little attention. The different ways in which parents have been involved in child-focused CBT are discussed and the results of those studies comparing child CBT with and without parental involvement are summarised. The results fail to provide consistent support for the widely held clinical belief that parental involvement enhances the effectiveness of child-focused CBT. Further research to determine the optimal way of delivering child-focused CBT in terms of effectiveness and use of limited clinical time is required.

Keywords: Children, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Parents.

Address: Paul Stallard, Dept. Child & Family Psychiatry, Royal United Hospital Combe Park, Bath BA1 3NG, England. Tel: +44-1225-825075. Fax: +44-1225-825076. E-mail: paul.stallard@awp.nhs.uk

*Published in English.

Social skills training in high functioning autism and Asperger's disorder

M. Mary Konstantareas
University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of this review is to provide an account of key social intervention strategies that have been employed with the high functioning subgroup of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including those with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS). These approaches are relevant to children who can employ spoken language. First off, an account of the characteristics of children with social skills deficits is presented, highlighting some of their most compelling problems, including social interaction difficulties, mind blindness and difficulties in interpreting or expressing emotion. As to the pathophysiology of these difficulties, the limbic system appears a prime candidate. The cognitive models of Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM), Weak Central Coherence, and the Executive Dysfunction have helped to provide useful leads and have stimulated and generated ideas for intervention which can take a behavioural, cognitive or cognitive-behavioural form. They rely on the use of explicit exercises to teach ToM, social stories that address areas of challenge for the child, social groups training, and role-playing and rehearsal. Finally, they rely on efforts to assist the children to perceive the emotional states of others, thus becoming more discriminating as to their own expression of emotion. Many of the techniques require systematic research to clarify their effectiveness, particularly the goodness of fit of the technique to the children’s presenting characteristics.

Keywords: Asperger’s disorder, Autism spectrum disorder, Executive dysfunction, Theory of mind.

Address: M. Mary Konstantareas, Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. E-mail: konstantareas@psy.uoguelph.ca

*Published in English.

Dance as a therapeutic medium for drug users: A qualitative research

Agni Miliou & Evrinomy Avdi
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

In recent years an increasing number of researchers employ qualitative methodologies for the study of the psychotherapy process. The present paper concerns a qualitative study focusing on the description and understanding of the personal experience of ex-users of addictive substances, who participated in a dance movement therapy group, in the context of their treatment. The group, which lasted for 6 months, was organised and facilitated by the first author, in a therapeutic community for drug addiction. After the end of the group meetings, the members took part in a semi-structured interview in which they had the opportunity to reflect on their experience of the group and to comment upon it. The interview transcripts were analysed using Grounded Theory methodology. The analysis revealed two basic axes of meaning; the first concerns the drug users’ relationship with their bodies, and the second concerns the way the par-ticipants assessed the group. Based on the findings of the study we discuss the contribution of dance/movement therapy in therapeutic programmes for addictions.

Keywords: Dance/Movement therapy, Grounded theory, Treatment of drug addiction.

Address: Evrinomy Avdi, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-997363, E-mail: avdie@psy.auth.gr

*Published in Greek.

Neuropeptide Y and feeding behavior

Stavroula Kyrkouli
University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) occupies a prominent position among peptides that stimulate feeding behavior. Hav-ing one of the highest concentrations in the mammalian brain, including the human brain, it has a particularly intense presence in hypothalamic nuclei that participate in the regulation of energy. Neuropeptide Y injection in several hypo-thalamic areas (particularly into the paraventricular/perifornical hypothalamus) increases food intake and its chronic administration leads to obesity. Neuropeptide Y release is increased in the hypothalamus of starved rats and reduced when glucose levels in circulation are high. Studies differentiating between appetitive and consummatory phases in food intake reveal that NPY acts by stimulating the appetitive phase of this behavior.

Keywords: Feeding behavior, Hypothalamus, Neuropeptide Y.

Address: Stavroula Kyrkouli, Department of Philosophy and Social Studies, University of Crete, 741 00 Rethymno, Greece. Phone: +30-28310-77214 & +30-2810-324418, E-mail: kyrkouli@phl.uoc.gr and kyrkouli@med.uoc.gr

*Published in Greek.

Issue 2


Yiannis Theodorakis & Marios Goudas
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

This is the introductory paper of the special issue of Hellenic Journal of Psychology entitled Self-talk in Sport Psychology. This paper reviews research on self-talk in sport and exercise settings and identifies five lines of research within this area and discusses how the five papers of this issue fit into these research lines. The first of these lines has examined athletes’ use of self-talk. The second one has examined the effect of self-talk on sport performance and has compared different types of self-talk. The third one has focused on potential mechanisms through which self-talk may affect performance. The other two lines of research have dealt with the relations of self-talk to the sport context and have examined how significant others promote the use of self-talk or how the use of self-talk by athletes influences how they are perceived by sport spectators.

Keywords: Self-talk.

Address: Yiannis Theodorakis, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. Phone: +30-4310-47001, Fax: +30-4310-47042, E-mail: ytheo@pe.uth.gr

*Published in English.

The effects of self-talk on throwing- and jumping-events performance

Marios Goudas, Vasiliki Hatzidimitriou, & Maria Kikidi
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

Two studies were conducted in order to examine: (a) the effectiveness of three types of self-talk (instructional, motivational, and kinaesthetic) on sport performance, and (b) athletes’ perceptions regarding the self-talk functions. In the first study, all three types of self-talk improved club representative athletes’ shot put performance relative to a baseline trial, whereas in the second study, physical education students did not improve significantly their standing long jump performance using self-talk. Thus, for some tasks, kinaesthetic self-talk can be as effective as motivational or instructional self-talk. Both athletes and students showed greater preference for motivational self-talk and reported that its’ use facilitated them on concentration, confidence, and feeling strong. Future research may examine the effectiveness of various types of self-talk employing individualized statements.

Keywords: Self-talk, Sport performance, Throwing / Jumping events.

Address: Marios Goudas, Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. Phone: +30-24310-47045, Fax: +30-24310-47042, E-mail: mgoudas@pe.uth.gr

*Published in English.

Coaches' behaviour, social support, and athletes' self-talk

Nikos Zourbanos, Yannis Theodorakis, & Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between perceived coaching behaviour, coaches’ esteem support, and athletes’ positive and negative self-talk. Two hundred and eight athletes participated in the study. Participants completed questionnaires assessing two coaching behaviour dimensions (supportiveness and negative activation), coaches’ esteem support, and athletes’ positive and negative self-talk. Structural equation models with latent factors were tested to examine the hypothesized relationships. The results showed that coaches’ esteem support mediated the relationship between coaches’ supportiveness and athletes’ positive self-talk. Moreover, there were direct effects of coaches’ negative activation on athletes’ negative thinking. Overall, the results of the study stress the importance of coaching behaviour and esteem support in shaping athletes' self-talk.

Keywords: Coaches’ behaviour, Self-talk, Social support.

Address: Nikos Zourbanos, Department of Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. Phone: +30-24310-78795, Fax: +30-24310-47042, E-mail: nzourba@pe.uth.gr

*Published in English.

Self-Presentational Effects of Self-Talk on Perceptions of Tennis Players

Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, & Albert J. Petitpas
Springfield College, Massachusetts, USA

Abstract (Summary):

Sport psychologists have suggested that athletes who appear positive and confident to their opponents may gain a competitive edge (Weinberg & Gould, 2003; Zinsser, Bunker, & Williams, 1998). But are athletes who use positive self-talk actually seen as better competitors than those who use other strategies? To explore how athletes using self-talk are perceived, 94 undergraduate psychology students were shown segments of tennis matches in which dubbed positive self-talk, negative self-talk, or no self-talk was audible. An ANOVA conducted on participants’ ratings of tennis players’ ability level indicated a significant main effect for self-talk. Post hoc analyses revealed that players shown with dubbed positive self-talk were perceived to be significantly better athletes than when those same players were shown playing the same tennis points with dubbed negative self-talk or with no dubbed self-talk. The results of this study provide empirical support for the contention that observable self-talk has an effect on opponents and highlight the self-presentational effects of self-talk in sport.

Keywords: Observable self-talk, Self-presentation, Tennis.

Address: Judy L. Van Raalte, Center for Performance Enhancement and Applied Research, Department of Psychology, Springfield College, 263 Alden Street, Springfield, MA 01109 USA. Phone: +1-413-7483388. Fax: +1-413-7483854. E-mail: jvanraal@spfldcol.edu

*Published in English.

Exploring coaches' promotion of athlete self-talk

James Hardy & Craig R. Hall
University of Wales, Bangor, UK & University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

Abstract (Summary):

Numerous variables have been shown to influence the use of athlete self-talk. One variable that has received limited consideration, however, is the coach. Therefore, the present study examined coaches’ promotion of athlete self-talk. One hundred and two female team sport athletes completed the Self-Talk Use Questionnaire; a self-report questionnaire assessing athletes’ use of self-talk. They also responded to questions focused strictly on their coaches’ promotion of self-talk. It was found that the majority of athletes reported that their coaches had encouraged the use of self-talk. Moreover, the reasons why self-talk was promoted were similar to the reasons why athletes report using self-talk. Neither the promotion of self-talk nor athletes’ competitive level impacted on the frequency of athletes’ self-talk. The importance of the effectiveness of self-talk was discussed in relation to the aforementioned findings.

Keywords: Coaches, Self-talk, Sport.

Address: James Hardy, School of Sport, Health, and Exercise Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Normal Site, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2PZ, United Kingdom. Phone: +44-1248-383493, Fax: +44-1248-371053, E-mail: j.t.hardy@bangor.ac.uk

*Published in English.

Instructional and motivational self-talk: An investigation on perceived self-talk functions

Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of the study was to investigate perceived functions of self-talk. Twenty six physical education stu-dents participated in an intervention study using an experimental task in swimming. The study lasted five consecutive days. On the first day participants were tested on a breaststroke leg drill. For the three following days participants prac-ticed the use of different types of self-talk on breaststroke arm drills. On the last day participants repeated the test of the first day, using instructional and motivational self-talk, and reported their perceptions regarding the functions of self-talk. The results revealed that according to participants’ perceptions both types of self-talk helped them mainly to im-prove their attention to the task. Furthermore, participants reported that the motivational self-talk cue had greater impact on effort, than the instructional self-talk cue, whereas effects on attention, effort, confidence, anxiety control, and auto-maticity were similar when using instructional and motivational cues. The results suggest that the effectiveness of self-talk is attributed mainly to its attention function, at least in the case of novel tasks. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests that different types of self-talk serve different functions depending on the content of the self-talk cues.

Keywords: Instructional self-talk, Motivational self-talk, Self-talk functions.

Address: Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. Phone: +30-24310-47009, Fax: +30-24310-47042, E-mail: ahatzi@pe.uth.gr

*Published in English.

Issue 3

Bereavement and the quest for meaning: Rewriting stories of loss and grief

Robert A. Neimeyer
University of Memphis, Tennessee, USA

Abstract (Summary):

Psychological theories applied to the experience of bereavement have recently undergone considerable evolution or perhaps even revolution, as conceptualizations of grief as a predictable series of stages of adjustment leading to recovery have been called into question by fresh thinking and research. This article summarizes some of the most important trends in the “new look” in grief research, drawing upon a brief case study to illustrate contemporary exploration of the role of meaning reconstruction, continuing bonds, the evolving self, and social processes in adaptation to bereavement.

Keywords: Bereavement, Continuing bonds, Meaning reconstruction.

Address: Robert A. Neimeyer, Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA. E-mail: neimeyer@memphis.edu

*Published in English.

Effective moral education: The Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion

Georg Lind
University of Konstanz, Germany

Abstract (Summary):

The Konstanz Method of Dilemma Discussion (KMDD) has been developed on the basis of Blatt and Kohlberg’s method of dilemma discussion for fostering moral and democratic competencies. Over the years several changes have been made to the method and systematically evaluated. Today the KMDD is even better teachable and more effective. In this article, its basic ideas and procedure are discussed.

Keywords: Democratic competencies, Moral competencies, Moral dilemmas, Moral education.

Address: Georg Lind, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany. Phone: +49-7531 88-2895. E-mail: Georg.Lind@uni-konstanz.de

*Published in English.

Pregnancy concerns and the fear of miscarriage: A miscarriage-specific implication or a social fear of failing in terms of womanhood?

Eirini Tsartsara & Martin P. Johnson
Keele University, Staffordshire, United Kingdom & University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia

Abstract (Summary):

Little is understood regarding the sources of women’s concerns particularly during a pregnancy subsequent to a miscarriage. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the experience, concerns and meanings that expectant mothers ascribe to an ongoing pregnancy. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 17 British expectant mothers with various past reproductive histories, including that of miscarriage. The resultant verbatim transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Two themes emerged. The first, named “uncertainty of pregnancy”, highlights the apprehensions and worries experienced by women regarding their pregnancy’s course and their attempts to remain in control of such uncertainties. The second, named “the dual nature of pregnancy” portrays the meanings that women attached to their ongoing pregnancy: this represented a means of establishing their feminine identity and of experiencing an ultimate goal in life, that is, motherhood. IPA revealed that concerns and fears during pregnancy revolve around the fear of miscarrying. This fear and resultant concerns was experienced irrespective of a prior adverse reproductive history, but was more salient amongst women who had previously miscarried or had experienced difficulties with conceiving. It is proposed here that potential sources of pregnancy concerns for expectant mothers, and particularly for those with adverse reproductive histories, stem from fear of miscarriage, which, like infertility, may pose a serious threat to a woman’s feelings of femininity and cause considerable frustration.

Keywords: Fear of miscarriage, Femininity, Pregnancy concerns.

Address: Eirini Tsartsara, British Hellenic College, 2 Rethimnou Street, 106 82 Athens, Greece. E-mail: eirini_tsartsara@hotmail.com

*Published in English.

Advance directives: A study in Greek adults

Stella Makridou*, Anastasia Efklides*, Dimitrios Economidis**, & Filimon Peonidis***
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The present study aimed at investigating the views of Greek adults (younger and older) as regards the issuing and carrying out of advance directives. Advance directives is a formal document stating the person’s wish with respect to the kind of treatment s/he should have in case of severe, irreversible illness such as coma, in which the person cannot decide for him/herself. The participants were 108 individuals. Of them, 59 were younger adults (18 to 59 years old) and 49 older adults (60 to 88 years old); 51 were males and 57 females. All participants responded to questions regarding demographic information, the subjective perception of their health status, religiosity, and to a questionnaire on advance directives. The results showed that age, and less so gender, was associated with differences in views on advance directives, unlike education. Health status, when severely affected by illness, influenced the person’s intention to issue advance directives. High religiosity, as compared to low, was associated with more definitive and negative views on advance directives. In general, the participants were aware of health states that create moral conflict as regards treatment options and, despite their low intention to issue advance directives, they believe – particularly the older adults – that the family (spouse, children) should carry out the person’s relevant wishes.

Keywords: Advance directives, Bioethics, Religiosity, Treatment options.

Note: 1School of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, 2Medical School, 3School of Philosophy and Education, Faculty of Philosophy.

Address: Anastasia Efklides, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-997374. Fax: +30-2310-997384. E-mail: efklides@psy.auth.gr

*Published in Greek.

Deep dyslexia in Greek: A case study

Anna Emmanouel*, Kyrana Tsapkini*, & Rudolph Jobst**
*Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece & **Neurological Department of Papageorgiou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

In this article we present the case of a patient with deep dyslexia, an acquired reading disorder defined mainly by semantic errors during oral reading. We analyse the case of LG, a Greek patient with deep dyslexia according to cognitive neuropsychological models of normal reading, in which deep dyslexia reflects the dysfunction in all the reading routes, namely the lexical processing routes, and the sublexical grapheme-to-phoneme conversion mechanisms. Concomitant symptoms in LG were: better reading of concrete than abstract words, visual errors, agrammatic profile including morphological errors, selective difficulty in oral reading of functional words, visual-semantic errors and a significant impairment to oral reading of pseudowords. The detailed investigation documented both the general characteristics of deep dyslexia along with the special features of deep dyslexia in Greek, indicating the particular organisation of the Greek mental lexicon.

Keywords: Cognitive neuropsychology, Deep dyslexia, Reading.

Address: Kyrana Tsapkini, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-997386. Email: tsapkini@psy.auth.gr

*Published in Greek.