Hellenic Journal of Psychology

Volume 13, 2016

ISSN 1790-1391

Legally responsible

Panayota Metallidou

President of the Psychological Society of Northern Greece
Department of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-997972; E-mail: pmetall@psy.auth.gr


Editor-in-Chief: Anastasia Efklides, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Associate Editor: Andreas Brouzos, University of Ioannina, Greece
Associate Editor: Panayiota Stavroussi, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Editorial Board

Alessandro Antonietti, University of Sacred Heart, Italy
Irini Dermitzaki, University of Thessaly, Greece
Maria Dikaiou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Sophia-Eleftheria Gonida, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Marios Goudas, University of Thessaly, Greece
George Grouios, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Konstantinos Kafetsios, University of Crete, Greece
Evangelos Karademas, University of Crete, Greece
Gregoris Kiosseoglou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Mary H. Kosmidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Shulamith Kreitler, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Panayiota Metallidou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Plousia Misailidi, University of Ioannina, Greece
Robert Neimeyer, University of Memphis, USA

Markku Niemivirta, University of Helsinki, Finland
Maria Platsidou, University of Macedonia, Greece
Pagona Roussi, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Wolfgang Schnotz, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany
Georgios D. Sideridis, University of Athens, Greece
Georgia Stephanou, University of Western Macedonia, Greece
Yannis Theodorakis, University of Thessaly, Greece
Maria Tzouriadou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Stephanos Vassilopoulos, University of Patras, Greece
Marja Vauras, University of Turku, Finland
Symeon Vlachopoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Filippos Vlachos, University of Thessaly, Greece


ALPHABET S.A., Vrilissou 80, Poligono, 114 76 Athens, Greece. Tel: +30-210-646686

Issue 1

Seeking help for mental illness: A qualitative study among Greek-Australians and Anglo-Australians

Nektarios A. Alexi* **, & Kathleen A. Moore***
*Relationships Australia Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia, **Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia, ***Federation University, Churchill, Australia

Abstract (Summary):

Despite the high prevalence of mental illness, research indicates that many people who experience mental illness do not access help and therefore go unnecessarily without treatment. It was the aim in this study to investigate reasons why people do not seek help for mental illness and to determine if there were any cultural differences between Anglo-Australians and the large Greek-Australian population. Nine Greek-Australians (six males) (age M = 29.84 years, SD = 8.75) and eight Anglo-Australians (one male) (age M = 34.93 years, SD =14.10) participated in interviews focused on their attitudes towards, and willingness to seek help for, mental illness. Results revealed participants had a poor understanding of mental illness per se, and in terms of help seeking suggested similar factors to those reported in the literature. Participants indicated embarrassment is associated with mental illness despite ongoing media campaigns and awareness-raising concerning mental illness.While both groups acknowledged that professional help may be useful they stressed the importance of a trusting and confidential relationship with the therapist. Anglo-Australians sampled were somewhat more willing to utilise professional help, while the Greek-Australian participants were more likely, in the first instance, to seek-out informal support such as from a priest.

Keywords: Cultural effects, Help-seeking, Mental illness, Therapeutic relationship

Address: Nektarios A. Alexi, Relationships Australia NT, Cavenagh Street 43 NT, Darwin, Australia. E-mail: nektarios.alexi@cdu.edu.au
Kathleen A.Moore, Federation University, Northways Rd, Churchill 3842, Australia. E-mail: k.moore@federation.edu.au

Academic and social experiences of school-aged Cypriot children with unilateral hearing loss

Kika Hadjikakou* & Chrysanthi Stavrou**
*Ministry of Education and Culture, Cyprus **School for the Deaf, Cyprus

Abstract (Summary):

This study explored personal descriptions of the academic and social experiences of pupils with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) who attend general secondary schools in Cyprus. Indepth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 Cypriot children with UHL. The participants described positive academic and social experiences, since they could communicate effectively with their teachers and peers, received support services and their teachers were deaf aware. The children’s auditory difficulties and their impact on their psychological condition were also noted.

Keywords: Academic inclusion, Unilateral hearing loss, Cyprus, Social experiences

Hellenic Journal of Psychology, Vol. 13 (2016), pp. 13-46

Address: Dr. Kika Hadjikakou, Coordinator, P.O. Box 20653, Nicosia 1661, Cyprus. E-mail: kikaha@cytanet.com.cy

General overview of the Flynn effect

Andreas Savva*, Mimis Efthymiou**, Nikos Moschos***, & Kyriakos Platrites****
* ** **** Cyprus Institute for Psychotherapy **University of Nicosia

Abstract (Summary):

Since the mid-1930s there has been a general and universal increase on the mean IQ scores. The paper presents a historical review of the literature from the first mention of the Flynn effect to its current status. The increase is still observed today in a different degree both in terms of geography and effect size, even resulting in some cases at a standstill or even a decrease. The connection of the phenomenon with the g factor, the Jensen effect and other statistical and methodological factors are presented as well as various other research hypotheses about factors that may affect and explain the observed variance of the global IQ scores.

Keywords: Flynn effect, Jensen effect, IQ, Lynn-Flynn effect

Address: Andreas Savva, Cyprus Institute for Psychotherapy, Evaggelou Floraki 37, Trachoni, Limassol, Cyprus. Tel: +357 99 831 464, Fax: +357 25 390 527. E-mail: research@psychotherapycyprus.com

Psychometric properties of the center for epidemiological studies-depression scale (CES-D) - Greek version

Kathleen A. Moore*, Nektarios Alexi**, & Marios Argyrides***
*Federation University, Churchill, Australia **Relationships Australia, Darwin, Australia ***Neapolis University Pafos, Cyprus

Abstract (Summary):

A Greek translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was examined in a sample of 221 Greek-Cypriots (M age 24.82 years). Results provide partial support for Radloff’s original factor structure, the factors’ internal reliability and independence, and the comparability of total scalemeans to the scale’s normative data.Women scored higher on the total scale scores thanmen and also higher on the depressed, interpersonal and somatic factors, but not the positive factor, than men. The incidence of depression using Radloff’s cut-point of 16 was lower in this Greek-Cypriot sample but aligned with Kessler’s (2003) estimate of the incidence of depression in the general community.

Keywords: Greek adaptation of CES-D, Cyprus, Depression, CES-D, Psychometric properties

Address: KateMoore, FederationUniversity, Northways Rd., Churchill 3842, Australia. Email: k.moore@federation.edu.au

Issue 2

The Polish short version of the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ-SF): Preliminary report

Katarzyna Walęcka-Matyja
University of Łódź, Poland

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Polish short version of the Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ-SF). The study comprised 1000 participants (52.6% females). Their age ranged from 18 to 83 years (M = 34.3, SD = 15.11). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors as in the original and the Polish versions of ASRQ. The three ASRQ-SF factors (Warmth, Conflict, Rivalry) showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s α = .89 - .97. The three-factor structure was confirmed with the use of confirmatory factor analysis. The model assumed correlations between all of the three factors and between the pairs of items regarding the perception of sibling relationships of the respondent and their sibling. The effect of gender on ASRQ-SF scores was also explored. To assess the external validity of ASRQ-SF, the correlations between the scales of ASRQ-SF and General Health Questionnaire-28 and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form were computed. The correlations were low but statistically significant and in the expected direction.

Keywords: Adult sibling relations, Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire-Short Form, General Health Questionnaire, Mental Health Continuum-Short Form

Address: Dr. K. Walęcka-Matyja, Institute of Psychology, Department of Social Psychology and Family Study, University of Łódź, Smugowa 10/12, 91-433 Łódź, Poland. Tel.: +48-79 2027590. E-mail: kwalecka@uni.lodz.pl

Self-dehumanizing as an effect of enduring dispositions poor in humanness

Maria Sakalaki*, Clive Richardson** & Kyriaki Fousiani**
*Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece & **University of Groningen, The Netherlands

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of this study was to explore to what extent enduring individual variables, namely Machiavellianism and economic opportunism, are involved in self-dehumanization. Confirming our hypotheses, a first study (N = 109) showed that Machiavellians (Machs) attribute more mechanistic, less human characteristics to the self. A second study (N = 150) found that both high-Machs and high opportunists have a greater tendency to explicitly assume an overlap between their own selves and a machine, that is, to explicitly dehumanize the self and have a higher score in a self-dehumanization scale other than the one used in Study 1. Issues about the components of the personality structure of these organizations that imply self-dehumanization are discussed.

Keywords: Human nature, Human uniqueness, Machiavellianism, Opportunism, Self-dehumanization

Address: Maria Sakalaki, 4 Kaisarias Street, 11527 Athens, Greece. Tel./ Fax: +30-210-7485830. E-mail: saka11@otenet.gr & sakalaki @panteion.gr

How to inspire, rather than instruct, recruiters to select diverse ethnicities

Simon A. Moss*, Gretchen Ennis**, Kerstin K. Zander***, J. Mark Davis*, Samuel G. Wilson****, & Nektarios Alexi*
*School of Psychological and Clinical Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Australia, **School of Health, Charles Darwin University, Australia, ***Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia, ****4Swinburne Leadership Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia

Abstract (Summary):

Recruiters often reject a candidate who belongs to another ethnic community. Arguably, initiatives that motivate people to develop capabilities, rather than prevent failures, might foster positive attitudes towards diverse communities. To asses this possibility, 198 participants read two job applications. The name of one applicant indicated this person belonged to a different ethnic community to the participants. Participants evaluated these applicants and then completed measures of goal orientation. Individuals who reported a motivation to develop capabilities expressed more favorable attitudes towards the person whom belonged to a different ethnic community. Arguably, recruiters and managers who are granted more time to develop their capabilities might not be as likely to discriminate against diverse ethnic communities.

Keywords: Discrimination, Goal orientation, Openness to diversity, Recruitment, Tolerance

Address: Dr. Simon Moss, Charles Darwin University, Ellengowan Dr, Casuarina NT 0810 Australia. E-mail: simon.moss@cdu.edu.au

Kατανόηση μεταφορών που εκφράζουν συναισθήματα και θεωρία του νου σε παιδιά ηλικίας 5 έως 9 ετών

Πλουσία Μισαηλίδη & Αθηνά Κώστα
Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων


Δύο ήταν οι στόχοι της έρευνας: Πρώτον, να εξετάσει τις αλλαγές που συμβαίνουν με την ηλικία στην ικανότητα των παιδιών να ερμηνεύουν το νόημα μεταφορών που εκφράζουν συναισθήματα. Δεύτερον, να διερευνήσει τη σχέση αυτής της ικανότητας με τη θεωρία του νου. Εκατό αγόρια και κορίτσια ηλικίας 5 έως 9 ετών άκουσαν έξι ιστορίες που κατέληγαν σε μία μεταφορική πρόταση η οποία εξέφραζε ένα από τα συναισθήματα: χαρά, λύπη, θυμό, φόβο, περηφάνια ή ντροπή. Τα παιδιά έπρεπε αρχικά να ερμηνεύσουν το νόημα της μεταφοράς και κατόπιν να τη σχεδιάσουν. Η θεωρία του νου μετρήθηκε με δύο έργα, ένα έργο ψευδούς πεποίθησης α’ τάξης και ένα έργο ψευδούς πεποίθησης β’ τάξης. Σημαντική βρέθηκε η επίδραση της ηλικίας στην ικανότητα των παιδιών να ερμηνεύουν και να αποδίδουν το μη κυριολεκτικό νόημα των μεταφορών στα σχέδιά τους. Όλα τα παιδιά ερμήνευαν και σχεδίαζαν με μεγαλύτερη επιτυχία τις μεταφορές που εξέφραζαν χαρά, λύπη, θυμό, και φόβο από ό,τι τις μεταφορές που εξέφραζαν ντροπή και περηφάνια. Θετική συσχέτιση βρέθηκε ανάμεσα στις επιδόσεις των παιδιών στα έργα ερμηνείας και σχεδίασης μεταφορών και στο έργο θεωρίας του νου β’ τάξης αλλά όχι με τις επιδόσεις τους στο έργο θεωρίας του νου α’ τάξης. Η σημασία και οι προεκτάσεις αυτών των ευρημάτων συζητούνται.

Λέξεις κλειδιά: Θεωρία του νου, Μεταφορές, Συναισθήματα, Σχεδιαστική ικανότητα

Διεύθυνση: Πλουσία Μισαηλίδη, Παιδαγωγικό Τμήμα Δημοτικής Εκπαίδευσης, Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων, 45110 Ιωάννινα. Τηλ.: 26510-05662. E-mail: pmisaili@uoi.gr

Issue 3

Psychometric properties of the Greek version of the body appreciation scale

George Alexias, Constantinos Togas, & Robert Mellon
Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences

Abstract (Summary):

This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) in a community sample in Greece. Participants were 2313 people between 18-76 years old (Mage = 31, SD = 11,69). There were 675 men (29,2%) and 1638 women (70,8%). The results supported a unidimensional structure for the Greek BAS with adequate internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. The BAS was positively correlated with Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and negatively correlated with the Body Mass Index, Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Other as Shamers Scale, and Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised. The BAS is suitable for research use both in men and women samples in Greece as a way of assessing the positive body image.

Keywords: Body Appreciation Scale, Positive body image

Address: Constantinos Togas, 28 Andrea Labrou Str., 222 00 Megalopolis, Arkadia, Greece. Tel: +30-6977240431, +30-2791024679. E-mail: togascostas@yahoo.gr

Examining test emotions in University students: Adaptation of the test emotions questionnaire in the Greek lanuage

Irini Dermitzaki, Fotini Bonoti, & Maria Kriekouki
University of Thessaly, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

Achievement emotions are an indispensable component of learning situations. This study aimed at adapting the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ, Pekrun et al., 2004) in the Greek language in order to examine how achievement emotions are shaped in a different educational context. Participants were 510 university students of both genders. Τhe TEQ assesses eight positive and negative test-related emotions. The instrument’s validity and internal consistency were examined. Overall, it was found that the Greek version of the TEQ had adequate psychometric properties. The emotion scales had good internal consistency and acceptable validity in terms of factor structures and relations to other individual variables, such as academic self-efficacy, learning strategy use and psychosocial adaptation to university. The study provides further evidence in regard to the conceptualization of emotions in a different language and educational setting.

Keywords: Academic self-efficacy, Achievement emotions, Learning strategies,Test emotions

Address: Dr. Irini Dermitzaki, Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Thessaly, Argonafton & Filellinon, 382 21 Volos, Greece. Tel.: +30-24210-74790. Fax: +30-24210-42496. E-mail: idermitzaki@uth.gr
Dr. Fotini Bonoti, Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Thessaly, Argonafton & Filellinon, 382 21 Volos, Greece. Tel.: +30-24210-74735. Fax: +30- 24210-42496. E-mail: fbonoti@uth.gr

Note: This work was supported by the Research Committee of the University of Thessaly under Grant No 4290.01.41
Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank the teaching staff and the students of the University of Thessaly who participated in this study and the graduate students Aikaterini Aroni and Maria Gialouri for their help with data collection.

H Θεωρία του νου κατά τη γήρανση: Κριτική παρουσίαση αντιφατικών ευρημάτων και διϊστάμενων απόψεων

Έλενα-Ιωάννα Ναζλίδου & Δέσποινα Μωραΐτου
Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης


Η Θεωρία του Νου (ΘτΝ) αναφέρεται στην ικανότητα απόδοσης νοητικών καταστάσεων τόσο στον εαυτό όσο και στους άλλους. Λόγω του ότι δεν υπάρχουν ούτε επαρκή ούτε ξεκάθαρα ερευνητικά δεδομένα για την πορεία της ΘτΝ κατά τη γήρανση, ως στόχος της παρούσας μελέτης τέθηκε η κριτική παρουσίαση των βασικών ερευνών που εξέτασαν τη ΘτΝ σε ενήλικες προχωρημένης ηλικίας, και η συζήτηση επί των ευρημάτων τους πρωτίστως από μεθοδολογική σκοπιά. Τα είδη των δοκιμασιών που έχουν χρησιμοποιηθεί μέχρι σήμερα στον πληθυσμό που μας ενδιαφέρει είναι περιορισμένα και αφορούν τα απλούστερα επίπεδα της ικανότητας απόδοσης νοητικών καταστάσεων στους άλλους και την αναγνώριση των faux pas. Παρά την ύπαρξη αντικρουόμενων ευρημάτων, ελλείμματα έχουν επιβεβαιωθεί στις περισσότερες μελέτες.

Λέξεις κλειδιά: Γήρας, Έμμεσος λόγος, Θεωρία του νου

Διεύθυνση: Έλενα-Ιωάννα Ναζλίδου, Τμήμα Ψυχολογίας, Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, 541 24 Θεσσαλονίκη. Τηλ.: 6993290174. E-mail: elena.ioanna.nazlidou@hotmail.com

Adolescents’ subjective and psychological well-being: The role of meaning in life

Andreas Brouzos*, Stephanos P. Vassilopoulos**, & Christina Boumpouli*
*University of Ioannina, Greece, **University of Patras

Abstract (Summary):

This study explored the association between meaning in life, subjective well-being and psychological well-being among adolescents. Participants were 477 students, aged 14 – 17 years. Meaning in life, psychological well-being and subjective well-being (satisfaction with life, positive affect, negative affect) were assessed through standardized self-report questionnaires. The results revealed significant correlations between meaning in life and subjective or psychological well-being among adolescents. Additionally, our findings highlighted the significance of particular sources of meaning in life, such as fair treatment and achievement, in promoting students’ well-being. Implications of these results for school counseling are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Adolescents, Meaning in life, Well-being

Address: Andreas Brouzos, Department of Primary Education, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina, Greece. Tel.: +30-26510-05695. E-mail: abrouzos@uoi.gr

Χαρακτηριστικά προσωπικότητας κατά τον Θουκυδίδη: Ψυχομετρικές ιδιότητες της κλίμακας προδιαθεσιακών τάσεων σε εφήβους

Δημήτριος Σ. Αλεξόπουλος* & Αλέξιος Πρελορέντζος**
*Πανεπιστήμιο Πατρών & **University of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK


Σκοπός της παρούσας έρευνας ήταν να διερευνηθούν οι ψυχομετρικές ιδιότητες της Κλίμακας Προδιαθεσιακών Τάσεων κατά Θουκυδίδη (ΚΠT-Θ) σε ένα δείγμα εφήβων ηλικίας 16-19 ετών στην Ελλάδα. Η ΚΠT-Θ βασίστηκε σε δημηγορία του Θουκυδίδη (Ι, 70). Στη δημηγορία αυτήν παρουσιάζονται τα χαρακτηριστικά της προσωπικότητας των Αθηναίων και των Σπαρτιατών. Η κλίμακα χορηγήθηκε σε 190 άτομα, 79 αγόρια και 91 κορίτσια. Η κλίμακα απαρτίζεται από 30 ερωτήσεις με απαντήσεις σε κλίμακα Likert από 1 έως 4. Εφαρμόστηκε ανάλυση κύριων συνιστωσών με ορθογώνια περιστροφή παραγόντων με τη μέθοδο Varimax. Εξήχθησαν πέντε παράγοντες: Αποφασιστικότητα, Διστακτικότητα, Τολμηρότητα, Συντηρητισμός, και Προοδευτικότητα. Οι διασυσχετίσεις ανάμεσα στους παράγοντες ανά φύλο και σε όλο το δείγμα κυμαίνονταν από .01 έως .40. Η συγχρονική εγκυρότητα του τεστ με βάση τις συσχετίσεις των παραγόντων της ΚΠΤ-Θ και της Κλίμακας Ανάγκης για Σκέψη (ΚΑΣ) ήταν ικανοποιητική. Η αξιοπιστία κυμαινόταν από ικανοποιητική έως επαρκής.

Λέξεις κλειδιά: Αποφασιστικότητα, Διστακτικότητα, Θουκυδίδης, Προοδευτικότητα, Προσωπικότητα, Συντηρητισμός, Τολμηρότητα

Διεύθυνση: Δημήτριος Σ. Αλεξόπουλος, Τριών Ιεραρχών 17, 161 22 Καισαριανή. Τηλ.: 210-7253127. E-mail: dalexope1@ath.forthnet.gr

Σημείωση: Ευχαριστίες οφείλονται στην ομότιμη καθηγήτρια Αναστασία Ευκλείδη για τις εποικοδομητικές προτάσεις της που συνέβαλαν στη βελτίωση της παρούσας εργασίας.

Investigating burnout in Greek teachers: Are there any teachers at risk?

Spiridon Kamtsios & Thomas Lolis
University of Ioannina, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of the study was to identify profiles of burnout in Greek school teachers and to investigate the contribution of coping strategies and daily stressors in burnout differences. A total of 1447 primary and secondary school teachers participated in the study. They completed the “Maslach Burnout Inventory” (version for teachers) (Maslach & Jackson, 1986), the “Ways of Coping Questionnaire” (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) and the “Teachers’ Professional Stress Questionnaire” (Mouzoura, 2005). Cluster analysis showed three groups of teachers as regards burnout, daily stressors and coping strategies. The first cluster comprised teachers with high job stressors, maladaptive coping strategies, high levels of depersonalization and emotional exhaustion, and low levels of personal accomplishment. Teachers in the second cluster reported moderate to high levels of personal accomplishments and emotional exhaustion, whereas teachers in the third cluster were characterized by relative low levels of burnout. The findings of the study are discussed.

Keywords: Burnout, Cluster analysis, Primary and secondary education teachers

Address: Spiridon Kamtsios, Arch. Makariou 37, 452 21 Ioannina, Greece, Tel.: +30-6946338714. E-mail: spiroskam@gmail.com