Hellenic Journal of Psychology

Volume 07, 2010

ISSN 1790-1391

Legally responsible

George Grouios
President of the Psychological Society of Northern Greece
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-992177; E-mail: ggrouios@phed.auth.gr


Anastasia Efklides Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Associate Editors:
Maria Dikaiou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Angeliki Leondari, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Georgios D. Sideridis,  University of Crete, Rethymno, Greece

Assistant Editors:
Irini Dermitzaki, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Mary H. Kosmidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Filippos Vlachos, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Plousia Misailidi, University of Ioannina, Greece
Pagona Roussi, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Guest Editors of the Special Issue:
Maria Dikaiou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Eleni Hatzidimitriadou, St. Georges University of London/Kingston University, United Kingdom

Editorial Board

Anastasia Efklides, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
George Grouios, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Shulamith Kreitler, Tel-Aviv University, Israel
Diomedes Markoulis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Robert Neimeyer, University of Memphis, USA
Markku Niemivirta, University of Helsinki, Finland
Jose M. Prieto, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
Wolfgang Schnotz, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany
Yannis Theodorakis, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Maria Tzouriadou, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Marja Vauras, University of Turku, Finland
Marcel Veenman, University of Leiden, The Netherlands


ALPHABET S.A., Vrilissou 80, Poligono, 114 76 Athens, Greece. Tel: +30-210-646686

Issue 1

Migration and ageing: Settlement experiences and emerging care needs of older refugees in developed countries

Eleni Hatzidimitriadou
St. George’s University of London/Kingston University

Abstract (Summary):

Migration is a phenomenon usually associated with younger people, so issues of older migrants attract less attention in research, policy making and welfare service provision. On the whole, older refugees are frequently put ‘at the back of the queue’ and overlooked by aid programmes due to assumptions that their needs are of less importance than those of other vulnerable forced migrant groups such as children. Nonetheless, older people who experience forced migration and exile are faced with serious difficulties such as traumatic experiences in origin country and during flight, health deterioration due to migration stresses, severed family and friends’ networks, limited choices of resettlement due to financial difficulties and lack of support. In addition, there is a disparity between service providers’ perceptions of user needs and older refugees’ own priorities. To date, there has been little research on their experiences in receiving countries despite the fact that evidence on settled older migrants depicts them as among the most deprived and socially excluded groups living in developed countries. In this article older refugees' health and social care needs and their implications for policy makers are reviewed.

Keywords: Health care, Migration, Older refugees, Social care services.

Address: Eleni Hatzidimitriadou, Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, St George’s University of London/Kingston University, Kingston Hill, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT2 7LB, UK. E-mail: e.hatzidimitriadou@hscs.sgul.ac.uk

* Published in English.

Migrants, refugees and mental health care in Europe

Charles Watters
University of Kent, UK

Abstract (Summary):

This article focuses on the provision of mental health services to migrants and refugees in Europe. It draws in particular on two recent studies, a mapping of mental health services for migrants and a study examining good practice in the mental health and social care of refugees. It is argued that research examining mental health provision for migrants and refugees is both timely and vital in addressing not only the needs of these groups but also in ensuring that services are responsive to these needs. A preoccupation only with determining the nature and extent of mental health problems in these populations may inadvertently obscure salient issues relating to the interrelationships between service provision and the identification and treatment of mental health problems. It may also lead to an absence of attention towards important issues concerning the organisation and delivery of services. It is argued that not only should attention be given to services but that, further, these should be examined within the wider political, economic and social contexts in which they emerge and are sustained. Through placing services within these wider contexts realistic approaches towards the identification and dissemination of good practice can be developed.

Keywords: Mental health care, Mental health services, Migrants, Refugees.

Address: Charles Watters, European Centre for the Study of Migration and Social Care, School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent, Beverley Farm, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7LZ, UK. Phone: +44-1227-823086. Fax: +44-1227-763674. E-mail: C.Watters@kent.ac.uk

* Published in English.

Social integration of refugees and asylum applicants in Greece

Maria Kiagia, Maria Kriona, & Eugenie Georgaca
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

This paper examines the social integration of refugees and asylum applicants in the city of Thessaloniki. Through semi-structured interviews with 12 refugees and asylum applicants, which were qualitatively analysed using the interpretative-phenomenological method, the refugees’ living conditions and needs were explored, as well as their views on their treatment by the state and society. The participants describe the difficulties they face in work, learning Greek and the examination process of their asylum application. They also express their sense of abandonment by the Greek state, in contrast to their feeling of cultural similarity with and of acceptance by Greek citizens. The present study contributes to the trend of research which, following the principles of critical and community psychology, aims to give voice to socially excluded groups, to highlight their point of view, aiming towards their empowerment.

Keywords: Asylum applicants, Giving voice, Refugees, Social integration.

Address: Eugenie Georgaca, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-997472. Fax: +30-2310-997384. E-mail: georgaca@psy.auth.gr

* Published in English.

Exploring highly-educated refugees' subjective theories of their psychosocial experiences

Maria Psoinos
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

This study aimed to elicit the meanings refugees attach to their post-migration psychosocial experiences and to explore whether these are aligned with experts’ conceptualisations of refugees’ problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 highly-educated refugees in the UK to elicit their subjective theories regarding experienced stressors, resources activated, and psychological health. The participants used the notions of stress, coping, and psychological health in all their richness and did not create necessarily negative meanings. In contrast to stereotypes often implied in experts’ theories, the participants did not emerge as “vulnerable” and “passive”. In their subjective theories they talked about problems but also how they tackled these. At the same time the resources and psychological outcomes they discussed varied. The findings of the study suggest that experts should consider refugees’ subjective theories when planning psychosocial interventions.

Keywords: Migration, Psychosocial health, Refugees, Subjective theories.

Address: Maria Psoinos, Department of Preschool Education, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece. Phone: +30-2310-995079. Fax: +30-2310-995079. E-mail: psoinos@hotmail.com

* Published in English.

Greek teachers cross-cultural awareness and their views on classroom cultural diversity

Despina Sakka
Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis,

Abstract (Summary):

The present study aimed at investigating Greek teachers’ cross-cultural awareness and their views on cultural diversity in the classroom. These issues become important given that the mainstream classroom under the present conditions in Greece is becoming multicultural and, as the existing literature suggests, teachers have not been adequately (if at all) prepared to teach in such a classroom. Participants in the study were 100 teachers of elementary and secondary education; of them, 57 were females. Quantitative data were collected through the Cultural Awareness Inventory and a structured questionnaire exploring teachers’ views on cultural diversity and their role in a culturally diverse classroom. The results showed the contradictory and dilemmatic character of teachers’ attitudes towards cultural diversity and point to the need of implementing new teacher training programs that would incorporate not only strategies for teaching new curricula but teachers’ needs as well, as these emerge in today’s multicultural classroom.

Keywords: Cultural diversity, Mainstream classroom, Teachers’ cultural awareness.

Address: Despina Sakka, Department of Primary Education, School of Education, Democritus University of Thrace, Nea Hili, 681 00 Alexandroupolis, Greece. Phone: +30-6945407023. Fax: +30-2310-341534. E-mail: dsakka@eled.duth.gr

* Published in English.

Issue 2

Construction and factorial validity of the Intellectual Capital Questionnaire

Aristides Isidoro Ferreira
Lusiada University of Lisboa, Portugal

Abstract (Summary):

This study reports the development and initial validation of the Intellectual Capital Questionnaire (ICQ), which was designed to assess organizational intangibles. The aim of this study was to create groups of items for a questionnaire based on prior theories and existing instruments related to aspects of organizational characteristics. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 440) allowed us to validate a 16-item scale with 3 factors, namely, Human Capital, Structural Capital, and Customer Capital. This new questionnaire, presenting good measurement qualities, is an effective tool for measuring organizational knowledge and intangibles in general and provides deeper understanding of organizations’ intellectual capital.

Keywords: Customer capital, Human capital, Intellectual capital, Organizational psychology, Structural capital.

Address: Aristides Isidoro Ferreira, Estrada Municipal 546, nº 39 2655-070 Carvoeira, Mafra, Portugal. Phone: +351-21-3611500. E-mail: aristidesif@gmail.com

* Published in English.

Are social representations consistent with social strategies? Machiavellianism, opportunism, and aspects of lay thinking

Maria Sakalaki*, Giorgos Kyriakopoulos*, & Sofia Kanellaki**
*Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Athens, Greece, & **Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The present study aimed to investigate if there are differences between cooperators and defectors when they represent some relevant “lay” notions implicated in the Evolutionary Game Theory’s approach of cooperation, namely “sincerity” and “revenge”. Different kinds of cooperators and defectors were identified by two scales, the Mach IV scale and the scale of economic opportunism, in a sample of 504 participants. The data on social representations and the attitudes towards the relevant notions were collected using the method of free associations, to which participants were asked to attribute a positive, negative or neutral value, depending on the more or less positive, negative or neutral affects, values or experiences they related to their own free associations. The hypothesis of this study was that differences between cooperators and defectors emerge through the attitudinal dimension of their representations rather than through their cognitive content and structure. The results confirmed the hypothesis, showing that the content and structure of the examined representations do not seem to differentiate cooperators and defectors even in cases of extremely cooperative or extremely defecting participants, as identified by the scales used. Results also showed that the attitudinal dimension of the examined representations could better discriminate cooperators from defectors.

Keywords: Economic opportunism; Machiavellianism; Social representations.

Address: Maria Sakalaki, Department of Psychology, Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, 136 Syggrou Avenue, 176 71 Athens, Greece. E-mail: sakalaki@panteion.gr

The adaptation of the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale to a sample of Greek patients: Validity issues

Evangelos C. Karademas*, Aristides Zarogiannos**, Konstantinos Stravodimos**, Anastasios Gyftopoulos**, & Konstantinos Konstadinides**
Vol. 7 (2010), pp. 159-179
*University of Crete, Greece & *University of Athens

Abstract (Summary):

The use of specially designed, valid and reliable measures is required for the assessment of coping with health injuries and problems. The aim of the present study was the adaptation of such a measure, the Coping With Health Injuries and Problems Scale (Endler et al., 1998), to a Greek sample. The scale was administered to four groups of patients (187 in total, 108 males and 79 females). Using exploratory factor analysis a structure of five reliable factors was revealed: dealing with the problem, adherence to therapy, emotional reactions, palliative strategies, and daydreaming–wishful thinking. This structure is not identical to this of the original scale. Moreover, the presence of complex coping strategies was revealed.

Keywords: Coping strategies, Health injuries, Health problems.

Address: Evangelos C. Karademas, Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Gallos, 741 00 Rethymno, Greece. Phone: +30-28310-77532. Fax: +30-28310-77578. E-mail: karademas@psy.soc.uoc.gr


* Published in Greek.

Inclusive education and collaborative practices between general and special education teachers

Anastasia Vlachou & Athina Zoniou-Sideri
University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece & National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

Collaboration between general and special education teachers has received increased research attention over the past decade as part of the effort to create inclusive learning environments. Yet, the notion ‘‘collaboration’’ can have multiple meanings so that different groups ascribe to it different meanings and different practices. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of collaborative practices between the teachers of general and special education and to analyze specific applied models of collaborative practices which promote the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the mainstream school. Particular emphasis is given on collaborative educational consultation and co-teaching. Further, the advantages and limitations of the various collaborative practices are presented at the research and everyday educational practice level.

Keywords: Children with special needs, Collaborative educational consultation, Co-teaching, Inclusive education.

Address: Anastasia Vlachou, Department of Special Education, University of Thessaly, Argonafton & Filellinon Str., 382 21 Volos. Tel.: 24210-74824. Fax: 24210-74799. Email: anavlachou@uth.gr.gr

Athina Zoniou-Sideri, Faculty of Early Childhood Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Navarinou 13A, 106 80 Athens. Tel.: 210-3688529. Email: asideri@ecd.uoa.gr


* Published in Greek.

Dyslexia: A synthetic approach to causal theories

Filippos Vlachos
University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

Dyslexia is a multi-symptomatic and heterogeneous disorder incorporating a wide variety of cognitive difficulties, and which is neurobiological in origin. This article attempts to provide a brief overview of contemporary and often controversial theories and research findings on the causes of dyslexia. Our first aim was to give a picture of the extensive range of difficulties associated with what we call dyslexia, in order to understand its complexity and its possible causes. Our second and more important aim was to present an attempt for the convergence and synthesis of the causal theories on dyslexia based on the latest research findings. These findings indicate that a synthetic and complementary conception of the recent theoretical approaches to dyslexia could lead to a more satisfactory and more complete explanation of the symptoms and the causes of this disorder than the individual theories on their own.

Keywords: Biological theories of dyslexia, Cognitive theories of dyslexia, Dyslexia, Etiology of dyslexia.

Address: Filippos Vlachos, Department of Special Education, University of Thessaly, Argonafton & Filellinon, 382 21 Volos, Greece. Phone: +30-24210-74739. E-mail: fvlachos@uth.gr

* Published in Greek.

Issue 3

Prologue: A review of life skills teaching in sport and physical education

Marios Goudas
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

This prologue reviews existing programs and respective research on life skills in the context of sport and physical education. The paper identifies three distinct lines of research within this area and discusses how the five papers of this issue fit into these research lines. The first of these lines focuses on the identification of athletes’ and students’ life skills needs, the second on factors contributing to life skills development, and the third on the evaluation of life skills programs. Further, two issues regarding future research are discussed: the transferability of life skills and the development of life skills measures.

Keywords: Life skills, Physical education, Youth sport.

Address: Marios Goudas, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. Phone: +30-24310-47045. Fax: +30-24310-47042. E-mail: mgoudas@pe.uth.gr

The relationship of physical activity and television watching with adolescents intentions and self-efficacy to eat healthy

Ian J. Wallace, Steven J. Danish, Donna K. McClish, & Kathleen M. Ingram
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA

Abstract (Summary):

Obesity is an increasingly substantial burden on people in the United States and around the world, especially because it contributes to higher rates of chronic disease. Efforts to prevent obesity have focused on identifying and minimizing risk factors that typically begin in early childhood; particularly, television watching (TV) habits, which develop early and are associated with childhood obesity. Other research has targeted intermediary variables in behavior change models—intentions and self-efficacy. To increase youth health behavior intentions and self-efficacy, research has examined the influence of physical activity (PA), particularly learned through sport. The current study examined ninth graders (N = 1,287) and investigated the relationship between PA and TV, and intentions and self-efficacy to eat healthy. Results show that independently, PA and TV were each significantly related to student intentions and self-efficacy. The implications of these findings are discussed for adolescent health behavior, adult health behavior, and the process of health behavior change.

Keywords: Obesity; Physical activity; Self-efficacy; Television watching.

Address: Ian J. Wallace, Fresno City College, Psychological Services, 1101 East University Avenue, Fresno, CA 93741-001, USA. E-mail: wallaceij@vcu.edu

* Published in English.

An evaluation of a physical education program for the development of students' responsibility

Maria Hassandra & Marios Goudas
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physical education program aiming at developing personal and social responsibility. Forty-one 5th-grade students participated in this study (10 boys and 11 girls assigned to an experimental group and 12 boys and 8 girls to a control group). The program was devised based on the “Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility” and the “Sport Education” models. After the implementation of the program students responded to questionnaires regarding their personal and social responsibility, as well as their knowledge about responsibility. Additionally, interviews were collected from experimental group students. Analysis of quantitative measures did not reveal significant differences between groups in self-ratings and knowledge of responsibility. On the contrary, the qualitative results showed that students developed more articulated perceptions of responsibility.

Keywords: Personal responsibility, Physical education, Social responsibility.

Address: Maria Hassandra, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. E-mail: mxasad@pe.uth.gr

* Published in English.

The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors and developmental benefits of high school sports participation

Daniel Gould & Sarah Carson
Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA & Jam

Abstract (Summary):

The present study explored the link between athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ behaviors and their own development of life skills such as initiative, goal setting, and emotional control. Former high school athletes (67 males and 123 females) completed a battery of surveys (Youth Experiences Scale-2; Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport) that assessed their positive and negative experiences in their primary high school sport as well as their perceptions of various behaviors the coaches of these sports performed. Canonical correlation analysis was used and two significant functions emerged. The first function revealed that participants who reported higher levels of the coaching behaviors of competition strategies, goal setting, talked about how sport lessons are related to life and built a positive rapport with athletes also reported that the development of emotional regulation, cognitive skills, feedback, prosocial norms, and linkages to community was more characteristic of their high school sport experiences. The second significant function revealed that participants who reported greater negative rapport with their coach were also less likely to perceive their coach as someone who helped them work on mental preparation, goal setting, competition strategies and was less likely to model good sportsmanship and provide motivation to work hard on one’s own. These former athletes were also more likely to report having experienced stress, social exclusion, and negative group dynamics through their sport participation. These initial results are promising as they show that the link of life skills with sports participation is more complex than appears in initial studies that have been conducted, with the role of relationship building being of particular interest.

Keywords: Coaching behavior; Life skills; Positive youth development.

Address: Daniel Gould, Institute for the Study of Youth Sports, Department of Kinesiology, Room 210 IM Sports Circle, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1049, USA. Phone: +1-517-4320175. Fax: +1-517-3535363. E-mail: drgould@msu.edu

* Published in English.

A qualitative evaluation of a life-skills program in a physical education context

Marios Goudas & Georgios Giannoudis
University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece

Abstract (Summary):

This paper reports a qualitative evaluation of a life-skills program in physical education. Participants in the program were 86 students of Grades 6 and 8. Data were collected from students’ interviews, field notes of participant observation and students’ notebooks. Results showed a positive reception of the program by the majority of the students as well as knowledge and transfer of life skills. However, there was also a group of students who were negatively predisposed towards the program. Drawbacks of the program that emerged were the absence of variety and the compulsory nature of goal setting.

Keywords: Evaluation, Life skills, Physical education, Qualitative methods.

Address: Marios Goudas, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 421 00 Trikala, Greece. E-mail: mgoudas@pe.uth.gr

* Published in English.

Looking back: Reflections from Play It Smart graduates

Kelly VanGorden*, Allen E. Cornelius**, & Albert J. Petitpas**
Vol. 7 (2010), pp. 335-349
*Bloomsburg University, Pennsylvania, USA &**Springfield College, Massachusetts, USA

Abstract (Summary):

The Play It Smart Program has an academic focus, an athletic audience, and an impact that spans well beyond the classroom and the athletic field. This study examined the reflections of Play It Smart graduates on how the program has affected their lives academically, athletically, and socially. Qualitative data were collected from 1,361 student-athletes who graduated from Play It Smart programs in the years 2003-2005. Responses revealed two major themes: student-athlete outcomes and social influences. Student-athlete outcomes consisted of three sub-themes: (a) developing important life skills; (b) accomplishing new heights athletically, academically, and socially; and (c) learning life lessons from participation in community service. Social influences consisted of: (a) the academic coach, (b) recognition from others, and (c) team influences. Through the Play It Smart Program, student-athletes felt that they gained the life skills to stay positive and persevere through the challenges that they may face beyond high school. These life skills were learned through a positive mentoring relationship with their academic coach, whose role was to create a positive environment for self-exploration and a context for growth.

Keywords: At-risk youth, Life skill development, Transferable skills.

Address: Kelly VanGorden, Department of Exercise Science and Athletics, 400 East Second Street, Bloomsburg, PA 17815-1301, USA. Phone: +1-570-3894360. Fax: +1-570-3895047. E-mail: kvangord@bloomu.edu

* Published in English.