ΨΥΧΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ ΒΟΡΕΙΟΥ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ - PSEVE

 
 

Hellenic Journal of Psychology 
 Psychological Society of Northern Greece


VOLUME 1, ISSUE 3 INFORMATION



HELLENIC JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
ΙSSN 1790-1391


Edited three times a year by the Psychological Society of Northern Greece (PSNG)
Volume 1, Issue 3, 2004

Legally responsible:
Anastasia Efklides, President of the Psychological Society of Northern Greece
School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece.
Tel: ++30-2310-997374. Fax: ++30-2310-997384. E-mail: efklides@psy.auth.gr 


Editors
Editor-in-Chief:  Anastasia Efklides Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Associate Editors: Maria Dikaiou
Angeliki Leondari
Georgios D. Sideridis
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
University of Thessaly, Greece
University of Crete, Greece
Assistant Editors: Irini Dermitzaki
Mary H. Kosmidis
Robert Mellon
Plousia Misailidi
Pagona Roussi
University of Thessaly, Greece
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
University of Crete, Greece
University of Ioannina, Greece
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Guest Editor of Issue 3 Mary H. Kosmidis Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece



Editorial Board

Anastasia Efklides
Diomedes Markoulis
Markku Niemivirta
Jose M. Prieto
Yannis Theodorakis
Maria Tzouriadou
Marja Vauras
Marcel Veenman
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
University of Helsinki, Finland
Complutense University, Madrid, Spain
University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
University of Turku, Finland
University of Leiden, The Netherlands


Publisher:
ELLINIKA GRAMMATA: Emm. Benaki 59, 106 81 Athens, Greece
Τel: ++30-210-3891800 - Fax: ++30-210-3836658
Bookstore: Zood. Pigis 21 & Tzavela 1, 106 81 Athens, Greece

© Copyright 2004: Psychological Society of Northern Greece (PSNG)
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) for commercial purposes without the written permission of the copyright owners. Manuscripts submitted to the journal in no case are returned back


Volume 1, Issue 3, 2004     


HELLENIC JOURNAL OF PSYCHOLOGY
Founded 2004





ISSUES IN NEUROPSYCHOLOGY

Guest Editor: Mary H. Kosmidis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELLINIKA GRAMMATA


 

CONTENTS


Prologue
          Mary H. Kosmidis................... ................................................................................VII

Ο ρόλος του προμετωπιαίου φλοιού στην ανάσυρση πληροφοριών από τη μνήμη
          Πηνελόπη Κωστοπούλου & Μιχάλης Πετρίδης...............................................................247
[The role of the prefrontal cortex in the retrieval of mnemonic information
          Penelope Kostopoulos & Michael Petrides]...................................................................267

Contributions of magnetoencephalography to neurolinguistics: 
Evidence from cross-linguistic studies
         Christina-Elena Valaki, Fernando Maestu, Panagiotis G. Simos,
         Tomas Ortiz, & Andrew C. Papanicolaou
.....................................................................268

Η έκπτωση μνημονικών και μη μνημονικών λειτουργιών στην ήπια 
γνωστική εξασθένηση
         Αλεξάνδρα Οικονόμου
.............................................................................................282
[Impairment of memory and non-memory functions in mild cognitive 
impairment
         Alexandra Economou]
.............................................................................................305

Μελέτη της γνωστικής λειτουργίας ασθενών με σχιζοφρένεια
         Βασίλης Μποζίκας, Μαίρη Κοσμίδου, & Αθανάσιος Καράβατος............................................306
[Study of cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia
         Vasilis P. Bozikas, Mary H. Kosmidis, & Athanasios Karavatos].........................................325

Neuropsychological reductionism and a possible solution toward clinical 
and experimental measurement of real world cognitive function and dysfunction:
A case study using virtual reality within a functional magnetic resonance imaging bore
        Konstantine K. Zakzanis, Richard Mraz, Zachariah Campbell, & Simon J. Graham................326


Reviewers List of Volume1................................................................................................349


Hellenic Journal of Psychology, Vol. 1 (2004), pp. VII-IX

PROLOGUE


This special issue of the Hellenic Journal of Psychology (HJP) is dedicated to the rapidly evolving field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology, the study of brain-behavior relationships, is an exciting field because of its potential to elucidate both the normal mechanisms involved in higher cognitive processing, as well as the pathophysiology of many disorders of the central nervous system. In the past few decades, research in neuropsychology has revealed much about normal language processing, memory, and other higher cognitive functions. Similarly, neuropsychological investigations have contributed to our understanding of common and debilitating disorders of the brain, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and schizophrenia. The results of such studies have important implications for assessing the accuracy of diagnostic criteria, for elucidating the nature of these disorders, and, potentially, for guiding the development of appropriate therapeutic interventions. Technological advances in brain research have enhanced the evolution of neuropsychological procedures and experimental paradigms. Such tools include methods of neuroimaging, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), as well as the application of more recently developed technology, such as virtual reality techniques, in the assessment of higher cognitive functions (i.e., navigational learning and memory).
      The studies included in the present special issue represent both the more traditional approaches to the study of brain-behavior relationships and those using modern technological tools; they also represent investigations of normal cognitive processing, as well as those of pathological conditions. Regardless of the particular tools or experimental design used, a common thread running through all of these studies is an emphasis on the use of experimental methods in an attempt to associate dysfunctioning areas of the brain with observable behaviors. Another important contribution of this issue is that it provides a sampling of current neuropsychological research by Greek scientists: both those working in Greece, as well as those working in other countries. Clearly, the work presented in this issue is neither exhaustive nor representative of the variety of neuropsychological research studies conducted by Greek neuropsychologists. Journal space limitations precluded the inclusion of the work of many others who are actively involved in neuropsychological research. It is my hope as assistant editor of HJP and guest editor of this special issue, that the research activity of Greek scientists in the field of neuropsychology will continue to be represented in HJP and, thus, accessible to interested readers both on a national and an international level.
      In selecting the topics for the present issue, I had hoped to cover a relatively broad range of topics for the general reader. Penelope Kostopoulos and Michael Petrides have explored normal cognitive processing. They investigated the role of the prefrontal cortex in effortful retrieval of memory for location and complex visual information by recording cortical activation with fMRI. Their findings implicated the direct involvement of the prefrontal cortex in the controlled and effortful retrieval of visual information, but also suggested the involvement of various parts of the prefrontal cortex in many other cognitive functions. Thus, this study can be viewed as a springboard for future investigations to further delineate the role of the prefrontal cortex in various functions. 
      Similarly, the paper by Christina-Elena Valaki, Fernando Maestu, Panagiotis G. Si-mos, Tomas Ortiz, and Andrew C. Papanicolaou describes the contributions of MEG in the study of normal language processing. Any theory of neurolinguistics would be strengthened if supported by cross-linguistic studies. This group of researchers explored hemisphere differentiation in Indo-European languages and tonal languages (i.e., Mandarin Chinese). Their findings suggested that lexical tones are processed by the left hemisphere, even in tonal languages, and not by the right hemisphere as might be expected. 
      Clinical neuropsychological issues were addressed by two of the studies included in this issue. Alexandra Economou reviewed her work on cognitive deficits in patients with MCI. Given the significant effect of education on test performance, Economou and her collaborators explored potential indices for the prediction and early diagnosis of memory impairment, which were least influenced by other factors. They discovered measures of memory functioning that were selectively sensitive to MCI without showing an effect of education. They also suggested that impaired fluid intelligence and executive functioning – once thought to remain intact initially – also characterize the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease. 
      In a review of our work of the past few years, Vasilis P. Bozikas, Mary H. Kosmidis, and Athanasios Karavatos described a series of studies that were conducted to elucidate the neuropsychological correlates of schizophrenia. While the presence of significant cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia is not disputed, controversies still exist with respect to the magnitude, the profile and the course of these deficits, as well as their relationship to psychopathology. In the present paper, the authors reviewed a series of investigations of potential areas of normal function, the relationship between psychopathology and cognitive deficits, cognitive similarities and differences between institutionalized and non-institutionalized patients, and the course of cognitive impairments. 
      Finally, the case study presented by Konstantine Zakzanis, Richard Mraz, and Simon J. Graham demonstrates the utility of virtual reality as a tool in the exploration of higher cognitive processes. Their goal was twofold: to overcome the reductionism inherent in any traditional type of psychological testing and propose an experimental approach to the measurement of cognitive dysfunction as it appears in real-world settings; and to relate this information to functional neuroanatomy. In order to achieve this goal, they created a simple experiment testing navigation learning and memory in a computerized virtual environment, which was compatible with fMRI of brain activity. The authors discussed the need to create neuropsychological measures that are relevant to the real-world settings within which patients actually function.
      There are several colleagues I would like to thank for making this special issue possible. First, I would like to thank Professor Anastasia Efklides, editor of the Hellenic Journal of Psychology, for her invitation to me to undertake this special issue. I would also like to express my gratitude to the authors of the papers for their contributions. Finally, I am indebted to the anonymous reviewers of these papers for their valuable feedback.

November 2004

Guest Editor

Mary H. Kosmidis
Assistant Professor